First you pass the « code » and then the « conduite ».
It's your instructor who decides if you're ready or not. If you're not, you'll have to take some more lessons, and to pay more ...
For the « conduite » you have to « prendre des leçons », take lessons, at least 20 hours, and it's expensive... You can start your driving lessons even if don't have the « code ».
Once you receive your full « permis de conduire » (code + conduite), congratulations.
But it's not the real one. It's only a certificate which lasts two months.